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Volume XIII Price 15 Cents 



Number 3 







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Photo by Harold M. Lambert Studios 



MARCH OUTING 
With the approach of spring and warm- 
ing clays the urge to venture out-of-doors 
once more becomes irresistible. 



VIRGinifl 
UIILDLIFE 



Published by VIRGINIA COMMISSION OF CAME AND INLAND FISHERIES, Richmond 13, Virginia 
A Monthly Magazine for Higher Standards of Outdoor Recreation Through Wildlife Conservation 



COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA 




JOHN S. BATTLE, Governor 
Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries 



COMMISSIONERS 

B. W. STRAS. Jr., Chairman, Tazewell, Va. 
CHAS. D. ANDREWS. SutTolk, Va. Or. E. C. NETTLES, Wakefield, Va. 
FRANK P. BURTON. Stuart. Va. Dr. WM. T. PUGH. Lynchburo, Va. 
WM. C. GLOTH. Jr., Arlington, Va. Dr. W. B. RAINS. Warsaw, Va. 
T. G. HERRING, RFD, Dayton, Va. T. D. WATKINS, Midlothian, Va. 



IT. QUINN, E.ccuti.e Director 
P Box 1442, Richmond, Vo. 



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Birds 



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Dog Low 

En- 
forcement 
























Law 






Game 






Fish 


Enforcement 






Division 






Division 


Division 






Division Chief 






Division Chief 


Division Chief 






C. F. Phelps 






G. W. Buller 


M. W. Kesterson 
















Fis 


cal 




Educ 


ation 






Division 




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Division Chief 
Miss L B. Loyne 




Division Chief 












J. J. Shomon 







Volume XIII 



MARCH, 1952 



Number 3 



J. J. Shomon, Editor 

R. R. Bowers, Associate Editor L. G. Kesteloo, Photography 

F. S. McDaniel, Circulation 



In This Issue 

Page 

Who Wants A Biologist 4 

Federal Aid in Fish and Game Work of 

the Southern States 5 

Before the Dogwood Blooms 8 

Let's Plant Those Idle Acres 10 

Conservationgram 13 

Coon Huntin' 14-15 

The Congo Eel 16 

Virginia's Historic Garden Week 18 

Virginia Inland Fish Series 20 

Virginia Game Bird Series 21 

Drumming Log 23 

Field Force Notes 24 

School Page 26 

Commission Directory 27 



Cover Photo 

A pair of southern flying squirrels are caught by the 

high speed camera, as they began their night time 

activities in search of food and frolic. 

Commismon photo by L. G. Kesteloo 

VIRGINIA WILDLIFE gratefully receives for consideration all news items, 
articles, photographs, sketches and other materials which deal with the use, 
management and study of Virginia's interrelated, renewable natural resources: 

WILDLIFE 



SOILS CONSERVE WATER 



FORESTS 

Since wildlife is a beneficiary of the work done by State and Federal land-use 
agencies in Virginia, editorial policy provides for recognition of their accomplish- 
ments and solicitation of their contributions. Credit is given on material published. 
Permission to reprint is granted provided proper credit is given. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: One Year. $1.00; two years, $1.30; three years, 
$2.00. Remittances by check or money order to be made payable 
to the Treasurer of Virginia. Local game wardens will accept sub- 
scriptions or they may be forwarded direct to Commission of Came 
and Inland Fisheries, 7 North Second Street, P. O. Box 1642, 
Richmond 13, Virginia. 

Entered as second class mail matter November 10, 194", at the Post Office at 
Richmond, Virginia, under the Act of Augrust 24, 1912., 



WHO WANTS A BIOLOGIST? 




By MAURICE BROOKS 

Member, Conservation Commission of West Virginia Professor Brooks 



THIS QUESTION, sarcastically asked, was a sub-head in a recent article by an outdoor writer whose 
stories are carried in a number of West Virginia newspapers. 

Well, the question, phrased as it was, made me mad, as I hope it did a good many others who 
are genuinely devoted to the cause of conservation in the state. The anglers of West Virginia (and 
the hunters, too) had better want biologists. If the remnants of our fish and wildlife are to be 
saved from encroaching civilization, it will be by the help and guidance of men who are trained to 
preserve them. Unless we have the aid of trained biologists, those who love the rod and gun will find 
their sport (in West Virginia at least) a disappearing and dying thing. 

Who are these fish and wildlife biologists? Young men, for the most part, who have lived in the 
woods or along the streams, and who have so abiding a love for the outdoors and its resources that 
they have chosen to devote their lives to its betterment. They find their sport, even as many others 
do, in fishing and hunting, and they will hold their own with the experts when it comes to filling 
bag or creel. They differ from other sportsmen in that they must either do a good job, or be out 
of one. For them, improved hunting and fishing is not a matter of sentiment alone — it is also their 
bread and butter. 

Doctors, so we are told, make mistakes, and bury them. Yet when you and I get sick we call a doc- 
tor. I donH see many newspaper columnists attacking the medical profession. Lawyers can^t all 
be right, since someone has to lose cases, but when we get tangled up with the law we want the best 
legal advice available. We have had preaching for a good many years, yet rumor has it that some 
sinning remains in the dark corners. Still, not many people are calling for the abolishment of the 
ministry. The profession of wildlife or fish biologist is new, and its followers, like other human 
beings, have made their mistakes. Nevertheless, in correcting the mess that others of us have made 
of our natural resources, they are our one final hope. 

The biologist, by discovering hitherto unknown facts of life history and habits, has made the Ten- 
nessee Valley lakes an angler's wonderland. Closer home, the fish biologists are showing us how to 
manage our newly-constructed farm ponds so as to secure phenomenal yields. I have just returned 
from a trip through our mountains, and have seen, first hand, some of the plans already drawn for 
improving our trout streams. The good work is going forward, but it is not being helped by those who 
choose to belittle it. 

It is cheap and easy to make fun of people whose ideas differ from our own. Any writer or speak- 
er can secure a following of sorts by deriding the "technicians." Yet, I am firmly convinced that 
those who do so are not serving the sport which they profess to love. The right to criticize is in- 
alienable, but arguing by personalities is the way of Communists and Nazis. It has no place among 
a people who cherish good sportsmanship. 

Who wants a biologist? I, for one, want the best we can get, and I pray God that other citizens 
of West Virginia will agree. 

— Courtesy of West Viryinia Conseri-ation 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 



Federal Aid in 



Fish and Game Work 
of the Southern States 



FROM VIRGINIA, Kentucky, and Arkansas on 
southward to the Gulf is our Southeastern Re- 
gion. Here, in a chmate that is benign for man 
and beast are the many forms of wildhfe that lure 
the lucky dweller of this land into the field. Scratch 
the surface of any community in the South and 
you'll turn up a lot of folks ready to quit and go 
fishing or grab the gun. But sometimes it looks 
like the hunters are increasing lots faster than the 
game. Then, the fish and game department catches 
heck from the sportsman. Here's where Federal 
Aid puts its shoulder to the 
wheel. 

In wildlife language Federal 
Aid means the Pittman-Robert- 
son game program, now 13 
years old, and the Dingell-John- 
son fish program which started 
this year. Both channel much- 
needed funds into our state fish 
and game departments. This 
year the P-R (Pittman-Robert- 
son) tax on sporting arms and 
ammunition brought to our re- 
gion over three million dollars 
of federal money. Virginia's 
cut was more than $318,000. 
The D-J (Dingell-Johnson) 
tax on sporting fishing tackle 
brought almost a half million 
dollars to the region and over 
40 thousand dollars to Virginia. 
From these funds the states finance 75% of the 
cost of their Federal Aid projects. 

The transfusion of these annual grants into the 
fiscal veins of our state game departments gave them 
a new vitality. Before P-R, our state game activities 
were almost wholly limited to law enforcement and 
quail hatcheries. But the P-R "shot-in-the-arm" 
brought a new era of technical game management. 
Lands were purchased and developed with food and 
cover. Deer and turkey were stocked on ranges 
where these species had long been absent. Research 
projects were carried out to show the proper meth- 



By CLARENCE W. WATSON- 




The source of federal aid monies 



ods. Staffs of wildlife technicians were acquired to do 
the work. The "business" of game management in 
our region was born — a rather anemic infant at first 
but now a lusty youth of much promise. Land has 
been purchased with P-R funds in large tracts and 
in all of our states except one. To date, 377,500 
acres of game lands have been acquired, and this 
continues at a rapid pace. Individual tracts run as 
high as 100 square miles in area. For the most part, 
they are designed to restored deer, turkey, quail, and 
waterfowl, and to provide places where the public 
can hunt these species. The 
prices paid for such lands aver- 
aged six dollars per acre. Most 
of them would sell now for 
several times the purchase price. 
Moreover, receipts from timber, 
farm crops, and other products 
compatible with wildlife man- 
agement can frequently to a 
large degree pay for the game 
operation. 

The acquisition and develop- 
ment of a statewide system of 
game-management areas for 
public hunting is an increasing- 
ly popular use of P-R funds. 
However, limited funds and 
greater difficulty in consolidat- 
ing large holdings curtails the 
acquisition of state-owned lands 
for public hunting. So now, 
the states are entering into agreements with large 
private timberland operators to develop the game 
and control its harvest on such lands. The owner 
gets protection from fire and trespass. The state 
gets the right to stock game, protect it, develop food 
and cover, and control hunting. It's a good deal for 
both parties. Similar cooperative agreements with 
the U.S. Forest Service, TVA, Army Engineers, 
and the Soil Conservation Service make large game 
land areas available to state fish and game depart- 
ments. The operating projects usually involve P-R 
and they affect about seven million acres in this 



MARCH, 1952 




CiiiiimisHion iiliotii hii I.. C. Ki:<ti hio 

The acqui^itiun and development of a J^latevvide sys- 
tem of game management areas for public hunting 
is an increasingly popular use of Pittman-Robertson 

funds. 




Photo by Arkansas Fish and Game Conimissiun 

Planting of bicolor and sericea lespedezas is carried 
out through Pittman-Robertson in all the South- 
eastern states projects. 

Compared with quail, deer restoration is relatively 
simple. Restocking and protection are rapidly bring- 
ing deer back in the Southeast. 

Photo h}j Amrriran AJn^^rum of Natural History 




Southeastern Region. For the most part, such areas 
are devoted to deer and turkey management. Squir- 
rels are another angle, and in some states the ruffed 
grouse comes into the picture. 

Some effort has been made in six states to provide 
quail lands, by purchase or lease, for public hunting. 
Florida's 65,000-acre Charlotte County project is 
the outstanding example. Purchased, studied, and 
developed with P-R funds, this is a successful public 
quail area. But, the acreage required to satisfy a quail 
hunter and the development costs entailed are far 
greater than the amount of land and money needed 
to satisfy the deer or turkey hunter. Each quail 
hunter wants to shoot several bags of quail during 
the season. Deer hunters are satisfied if one hunter 
out of four or even ten kills a deer on one hunt 
per year. Consequently, public shooting grounds 
for quail are few in number. They are valuable 
to demonstrate eflScient quail management prac- 
tices. However, as far as quail go, most of our states 
prefer to invest their P-R dollars in farm game 
habitat projects. 

Since our quail are, for the most part, associated 
with farming areas, any statewide quail improve- 
ment program must deal with the problem of how 
to improve quail production on thousands of farms 
throughout the state. To be successful, any practice 
must have a dual value. It must increase the carry- 
ing-capacity of the land for quail and at the same 
time appeal to the farmer as being beneficial and 
practical for his farm. To reconcile these two re- 
quirements is far from easy. 

At present, the planting of perennial lespedezas — 
sericea and bicolor — on field borders is the favored 
practice. The sericea furnishes good quail cover. 
Bicolor is an excellent food. Both plants improve 
the soil and control erosion. Moreover, the sericea 
makes good forage and hay. This type of project 
is conducted under P-R in all of the Southeastern 
States. Last year these particular projects cost about 
one-half million dollars and borders amounting to 
a total length of 2,700 miles were planted. Quail 
use of these lespedeza strips is very high. However, 
we need to know to what extent the plantings ac- 
tually increase the numbers of quail on a farm. P-R 
research projects in four states are studying this 
problem now. 

Compared with the quail problem, deer restora- 
tion is relatively simple. Restocking and protec- 
tion are rapidly bringing deer back in the South- 
east. Between 1920-1930 our deer were at their 
lowest numbers. In many parts of the South people 
had never seen a deer. Thanks to restocking proj- 
ects, the deer is again becoming a familiar animal. 

VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 



Under P-R projects about 10 thousand of them 
have been stocked in depleted ranges. Arkansas and 
Virginia have been most successful in restoring good 
deer hunting to their sportsmen. 

Throughout the Southeast deer stocking is a major 
activity. The animals are secured either by purchase 
outside of the state or by live-trapping within the 
state. Most of our states live-trap where deer are 
plentiful, but they purchase deer to supplement the 
numbers. Arkansas has had much success with deer 
trapping. One year they obtained over 500 animals 
at a cost of $15 each. Virginia has done an excel- 
lent job with purchased deer. In any event, deer 
are increasing throughout the South and the current 
population of one-half million might well be raised 
to three million with proper restoration measures. 

Keen interest is devoted in all of our states to P-R 
turkey restoration projects. These involve the stock- 
ing and protection of turkey refuges accompanied 
by the planting of favored foods. In most states 
wild birds are trapped where plentiful and trans- 
ferred to special areas. Well over 600 such birds 
have been trapped and relocated. Virginia's annual 
turkey liberations are the largest in our region. A 
high quality of pen-raised bird is used. Louisiana 
also releases large numbers of pen-raised turkeys, 
purchasing them from dealers in Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia. Where obtainable the truly wild 
turkey is to be preferred. The pen-raised birds show 
some promise, but their value in restocking remains 
to be proven. 

The eastern wild turkey is much more difficult 
to increase than is the whitetail deer. Turkeys are 
more demanding of wide range, of freedom from 
disturbance, and of suitable habitat. Valuable re- 
search in Alabama and Virginia has pointed out some 
effective measures to be used with turkeys. How- 
ever, we are still far from an understanding of the 
bird's essential needs. The turkey population of the 
Southeast is now estimated at about 140,000 birds. 
They are said to be increasing in Florida, Kentucky, 
and Mississippi. North Carolina reports a decreas- 
ing population, and some states are doubtful. A 
note of optimism is struck in the adaptability of the 
bird to a land use economy in which timber produc- 
tion and cattle raising are combined. Turkey pop- 
ulations are high on large timberland holdings of 
this type in southern Alabama. A P-R research 
project in this section is now studying this situation. 

All of our states are interested in waterfowl. 
Through P-R survey projects a regionwide search 
has been made for areas suitable for development as 
refuges and hunting grounds for ducks and geese. 

(CoHtiimed oii page 22) 

MARCH, 1952 




Commission photo by L. G. Kesteloo 



Keen interest is shown in Pittnian-Robertson turkey 
restoration work in all the Southeastern states. Vir- 
ginia's annual liberations are the largest in the region. 




I'hoto by Arkansas Fish and (• 



V^irginia has acquired the excellent Hog Island Refuge 

on the James River as a development and holding 

area for waterfowl. 



The Southeastern states now have 20 fisheries proj- 
ects approved under the new Dingell- Johnson fish res- 
toration program. Many are research projects. 

Photo By James E. May 




.V 




Comm,ission photos by Kesteloo 



Long before the swollen, biscuit- shaped buds of the dogwood burst into bloom, kids and oldsters alike begin 

fishing for panfish. 
March is the month of awakening — of moods — for both fishermen and fish. 
For maximum early spring enjoyment why not try your hand at panfishing 



THE ANGLER'S URGE, really a sort of pleasant 
rash, breaks out among Virginia's fresh-water 

fishermen long before the first buds of spring. 
Just a few sunny days, and small boys start to bend 
pins and get sewing cotton from their mothers to 
fashion fishing tackle. Long before the first dog- 
wood blooms, when one can go barefooted and go 
swimming, the fish worms are doing business. 

Many of the grownups have stayed up late in 
the winter nights tinkering with feathered contri- 
vances, or studying the latest theories about how 
to string worms on a hook, or how a grasshopper 
can be made to look like a grasshopper that hasn't 
got a hook in it. The rash gets them all, youngsters 
and grownups alike. They are all itching to get 
out after what we commonly call panfish. 

Just let the thin ice around the edges disappear, 
and they'll be out. The panfish stir early, and so 
do the fishermen. Just let the temperature of the 
water come up a degree or two, and the panfish 
start looking around for spawning places. They 
are hungry and will snatch a meal while doing so. 
Silver perch or crappie are among the first of our 
panfishes to leave their winter quarters. 

When we go out in early spring for panfish, we 



normally think in terms of the sunfishes, of which 
there are many variants. Bass, bream, longeared 
sunfish, yellow-bellies, silver perch, flier and the 
warmouth, all are sunfishes. Ring or yellow perch, 
which also stir early, are the best-known members 
of the true perch family. Blue-nosed perch, land- 
locked in many of the ponds, is a salt-water fellow, 
as are the grand big shad which come into fresh 
water to spawn. 

Early in the spring many also go out with dough- 
balls, chicken innards and other enticements for 
carp and catfish, which can hardly be classed as 
panfish. Then there is the fallfish which grows big 
in our eastern Virginia streams and will take any 
kind of lure a trout will take, and the eastern chain 
pickerel, which we call pike, but which too is not 
a panfish. 

Bluegill bream are perhaps the most sought-after 
of the panfishes. They are numerous, and they are 
cooperative. Silver perch, or crappie, where they 
are plentiful, run a close second. Both of these fine 
species of panfish start moving around long before 
the dogwoods are anywhere near in bloom. They 
stay deep until the water becomes really warm — 
warmer than ice-cold — and the hosts of Virginia 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 



anglers know what to do about it. 

They fish with natural baits, and fish them deep, 
until the fish actually make their way into the 
shallows. For silver perch, they give the little min- 
now a workout. Some of the ultra-smart anglers 
rig up an outfit and cut the line above the cork. 
If a silver perch takes the minnow, he will prob- 
ably swim back where there are others of his kind, 
for silver perch, in springtime, are almost always 
found in schools. 

The angler for bluegills expects to find them deep 
when the waters are still icy and lays his plans 
accordingly. How delightful it is when he finds 
that the bluegills have actually left the dark re- 
cesses and are acting up in the shallows, as they 
are counted upon to do later. The fly fisherman 
sticks to his wet flies — with maybe spinners ahead 
of them — until the day arrives, to his' delight, when 
he finds that the bluegills will rise to the surface 
lures. 

The day may come earlier than we think, when 
the panfish will be acting up as they will unques- 
tionably be doing a little later, depending upon 
whether there is an early or late spring. Warmth 
means a lot more to fish than to fishermen. Lots 
of the anglers will be out with their duck-hunting 
parkas coming in handy. The urge to go fishing 
is strong upon us. 

When we gather up our fishing tackle in early 

Typical scene is this freckled faced youngster out for 
an early session with the prince of panfish. 



-^mm. 




spring, nobody is thinking in terms of bass or moun- 
tain trout, for there are certain periods in which 
they are protected in their spawning, and nobody 
wants particularly to catch them except when going 
specifically for them in legal season. The panfish 
are interesting enough. And let's not forget the 
branch minnow, which has probably caused more 
delight among more small boys than any other fish 
we have. 

And speaking of branch minnows, and panfish 
in general, one of the most vivid recollections of 
this writer's early life was when he and another 
boy planned a horse-and-buggy trip to the South 
Anna River. Plenty of effort was expended in 
advance in getting the necessary minnows from the 
spring branches for bait. Alas, the river was muddy 
and we couldn't fish in it at all. So we got out the 
frying pan and a few strips of bacon we had brought 
along. Our bait minnows proved about as savory 
morsels as we have ever tasted since. 

While early spring fishing has its fascinations for 
all conceivable varieties of fishermen, it is particu- 
larly attractive to the hordes of anglers who have 
taken up fly fishing. Lots of these fellows have been 
practicing casting, tying knots, or even fashioning 
their own lures during the winter and they are 
champing at the bit for a chance to try out their 
gear. 

Some take off their wet flies when results are dis- 
appointing and substitute a hook and a gob of 
worms. This will make fish leave home if nothing 
else will. But the water has got to be mighty cold 
for panfish not to be interested in a well-tied and 
well-manipulated wet fly. One of white or with 
white in it, resembling the belly of a little minnow 
moving through the water, is a logical enticement. 
But, perversely, a solid black fly is deadly for bream 
in early season. Nobody knows what a bream thinks 
a black gnat is. 

The waters soon warm up in our climate, and the 
panfish find their nesting places and start sweeping 
out their spawning beds. It is then that the fly 
fisherman with surface lures has the picnic of his life. 
It is not covering too much territory to declare 
that little surface bugs or dry flies properly fished 
under these conditions will come nearer providing 
a mess of fish than any other scheme we know of, 
with the possible exception of a net. 

The spinning outfit, coming more and more into 
common usage, is at its maximum of usefulness in 
fishing for the panfish in early spring. A lot of 
water can be covered with the wet fly or spinner, 
and the same can be said of the devices employed 

(Continued on page 22) 



MARCH, 1952 




Within 15 to 20 feet of a woodland there is a sapped 

strip of land which returns little or nothing in crop 

yields. If planted to bicolor, it will pay its way in 

wildlife crops. 



Let's Plant 

Tliose Idle 

Acres 



Bv ROBERT R. BOWERS 



Commission photos by L. G. Kesteloo 



TRADITIONALLY, the state of Virginia is a 
farming state, boasting of some 175,000 farms 

that encompass well over 2 5 ,000,000 acres of land. 
That's a lot of acreage — sure. But do you realize 
that nearly 700,000 of these acres are going to waste 
— idle acres serving no useful purpose. Idle land 
is a symbol of waste, and so often, a testimony of 
abuse. It denotes poor land management, and adds 
nothing to farm income. It is a shameful commen- 
tary upon our way of life. If we are ever to realize 
the full potential of our Virginia farmlands, then 
these idle acres must be put into production and 
made to work. 

Even the most uninformed novice can readily rec- 
ognize eroded fields, decaying farms, and barren 
lands, but it takes a "bit of lookin' " to see the less 
obvious forms of idle acres on the farm. If you're 
a landowner, and expect all of your land to pay 
dividends, then it would be well for you to survey 
your land with more than a passing glance. Your 
precious time and energy may be spent cultivating, 
planting, and harvesting crops, hardly sufficient to 
pay for the time and energy allotted to their nurture. 
To bring out the point, let's take an average farm 
and look it over more closely. 

On farms where cropfields border woodlands 
there is a sapped out strip of soil that returns, in crop 
yields, exactly nothing. Then there is that strip of 
land between the fence and the road, which is usual- 
ly cut to the ground for beauty's sake. This is 
waste, and although this area once held but a rab- 
bit or a covey of quail, it now holds nothing. Then 
again, many odd areas, serving no useful purpose in 
the way of adding to farm income, are cropped 



or burned. Why? Neat, fertile farms, trimmed to 
the bone of all natural vegetation are as barren of 
wildlife as eroded unfertile acres. Wouldn't it be 
better to leave these wildlife havens as they are, or 
better still, plant them to food and cover plants and 
have a rabbit or a covey of quail than to have a neat 
looking farm with nothing on it in the way of wild- 
life? Life itself is beautiful, especially life that 
moves. Variety breaks the monotony of life. What 
better way could this monotony be broken than by 
the thrill-packed scattering of a covey of birds or 
the sight of the wily cottontail bouncing across the 



lawn. 



You may ask, well, what does this mean to me? 
How am I concerned? Every acre of idle land 
put into vegetation is one more acre protected 
against erosion, and, planted eroded areas become 
productive once more. But if you plant that acre, 
why not do it with a type of plant that serves a 
double purpose, with plants that not only prevent 
erosion but also provide excellent food and cover 
for birds and rabbits. Vegetation is nature's own 
weapon against soil erosion. Man has yet to find 
a better one. 

If you live in the Southeast, and you want to make 
an investment in quail and rabbits, you can do it 
without taking a single acre out of crop production. 
All you need do is plant those idle acres. What 
should you plant? Well, why not plant bicolor 
lespedeza and/or sericea lespedeza, separately or in 
combination, since they have proven excellent wild- 
life foods in Virginia. Simple? Of course, it is; 
and where growth begins it will give you a feeling 
of self-satisfaction when you begin to see those idle 



10 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 



acres once more in production. A pound of rabbit 
or a pound of quail is just as filling and just as tasty 
as the best corn-fed pork, or beef grown on the 
most fertile of pastures, and that rabbit or quail 
will be coming from land which at the present time 
is producing nothing. You pay taxes on that land. 
Why not have it pay you back? 

How To Get Plants 

The Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries 
furnishes wildlife planting material to interested 
landowners and sportsmen in the state each spring. 
Through its Pittman-Robertson farm game pro- 
gram the materials are furnished, without charge, 
in order that the idle lands may again serve a worth- 
while use in the form of producing an increased 
wildlife crop, quail and rabbits in particular. All 
that the Commission asks of the landowner is that 
the seeds and plants which are supplied be planted 
and cared for in such a way as to produce the max- 
imum benefits to wildlife. 

The Commission, in cooperation with the Soil 
Conservation Districts throughout the state, is in- 
terested in helping landowners, sportsmen, and all 
interested groups to improve the food and cover for 
wildlife by planting wildlife borders and food 
patches. It is only through such a program that 
permanent improvements can be made in wildlife 
habitat. More food and cover means more game 
for the hunter and fewer acres of idle land. 

Planting material can be obtained by making ap- 
plication with your local soil conservationist, county 
agricultural agent, county game warden, or dis- 
trict game technician. These men will see that the 
materials are delivered to you in time for planting 

Technical advice on where and how to plant is given 

free of charge by the Commission's game technician. 

and soil conservationists. 



in the spring. February 15 was the deadline for 
applications for planting material this spring, but 
it is not too late to survey your land for locations 
which can be planted next spring. 

Plants Available Upon Request 

The Commission makes an assortment of plants 
and seeds available to the public upon request; some 
of which are shrub lespedeza plants and seeds, sericea 
lespedeza seeds, wildlife seed mixture, composed of 
soya beans, cow peas, millet, milo, and Korean les- 
pedeza, and milo maize. 

Ranking highest among these plants, as to wild- 
life benefits, are shrub lespedeza and sericea lespedeza. 
These two plants have proven their worth through- 
out the Southeast as dependable quail and rabbit 
food and cover plants, and they are preferred by 
most biologists who have charge of making wildlife 
food plantings. 

Where and How To Plant 

Soil conservationists surveyed 3,500 fields in the 
Southeast and found that for an average distance 
of 33 feet from woodland edges the land produced 
less than half the normal crop. An average strip 
of land 12 feet wide was uncultivated, thus a strip 
21 feet wide has been plowed, planted, and fer- 
tilized, which did not even return enough to pay 
for the money and time spent on its preparation. 

A border of legumes planted in such a situation 
will have utility for the farmer and improve con- 
ditions for quail and rabbits. Its main values are 
that it will prevent erosion in field margins and 
provide a space in which to turn implements at the 
end of the field. The thick growth of legumes pre- 




A Hnishe<l product. Culti\alcd crop;* gro>* up to the 

hicolor, and the hicolor forms a buffer zone between 

the woodland and the field. 



MARCH, 1952 



11 




m 



"■s.^ 






1|N^, 




"^WM 




'9m 




#^^B 







Idle area8 between woods and farm ponds can be effectively planted to bicolor lespedeza, thus enhauciug es- 
thetic, recreational, and wildlife values. 



vents the spread of shrubs from the woods into the 
open land. 

A fifteen-foot strip of shrub lespedeza (Lespedeza 
bicolor) makes an excellent border for woodlands. 
If crop rows extend into it, the border should be 
widened by an additional fifteen-foot row of sericea 
lespedeza. Farm machinery can be turned on the 
sericea and it may be cut for hay. Bicolor makes a 
shrub 10 feet tall under favorable conditions. 

Virginians who are interested, and want to invest 
in quail, should plant a 400-foot strip (5 rows 3 
feet apart) of bicolor along any brushy cover or 
through open pine woodlands. Biologists of the Soil 
Conservation Service have determined that this is 
about the size planting (one-eighth acre) required 
to support an average covey. Eroded gullies, cut 
over lands, and idle fields likewise present outstand- 
ing opportunities for landowners to increase the 
production of their lands by planting erosion-con- 
trol wildlife plants. 

The Pay-off 

To plant an eroded gully is to put antiseptic on 



a wound, in the hope that it may heal quickly. All 
of us know that we cannot do our best work when 
we're sick — well, neither can the land. Sick land 
makes sick people. Think what it would mean 
if every farm in Virginia — 175,000 of them — de- 
voted but one acre each to wildlife food plantings! 
Spread out in one-eighth acre plots, and figuring 
the amount required for each covey of quail, this 
would mean 1,400,000 plantings throughout the 
state. And let's suppose each planting was made on 
land prone to erosion or on eroded land. Could it 
be that soon there would be sufficient "birds" for 
all to hunt? And could it be that our rivers might 
flow clear again? Maybe such thinking is too far- 
fetched, but then who can say that it cannot be ac- 
complished unless an attempt is made. Surely it is 
worth trying. If you're one of those landowners 
who has an extra acre or two that's just idling away, 
or that's beginning to show the fuzz of erosion, 
why not do something about it this spring. What 
have you to lose? Nothing. To gain — everything. 
Be it farm crops or wildlife crops, every acre should 
be in production. So let's plant those idle acres. 



CONSERVATION LICENSE PLATE ATTACHMENT OFFERED BY COMMISSION 

The Virginia Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries is offering a beautiful multi-colored conservation license plate 
attachment as a premium for two new one-year subscriptions to Virginia Wildlife, or one iietc three-year subscription. 
This offer will become effective March 1, 1952, and will expire on June 1, 1952. 



12 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 



J' 



X 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 

CONSERVATIONGRAM 

Late Wildlife News ... At A Glance 



■>. 



r 



FINAL TALLY ON STATE'S DEER- BEAR- TURKEY KILL R ECEIVED; A final report on the total kills of 
deer, bear, and turkey in Virginia during the 1951-52 hunting season has been compiled. 
The total deer kill in the entire State was 7514, with 4089 killed in the area east of the 
Blue Ridge, and 3425 killed west of the Blue Ridge. Sussex County led in the east with 650 
deer, and Southampton County ran second with 322. Augusta County led in the west with 
541 kills, and Shenandoah County ran a close second with 512. 

There were 2129 turkeys bagged in Virginia, with Buckingham County out in front with 143 
kills. Spotsylvania County was second with 121. Along with these reports came figures 
on the bear-kill, which was 148 for the entire state. 

POWHATAN STEPS FORWARD IN WILDLIFE CONSERVATIO N: Realizing the pressing need for the conser- 
vation of our wildlife resources, the Powhatan County Board of Supervisors, at a morn- 
ing session February 4, appropriated funds to purchase a tractor and a bush and bog disc, 
for the sole purpose of aiding landowners make food and cover plantings for wildlife, ac- 
cording to C. P. Montgomery, conservation of ficer for the Commission. 



The board, made up of Wyatt Sanders, Mart 
to take this action by conservation offic 
sentative of the House of Delegates, and 
Board of Supervisors will cooperate with 
which will furnish the planting material 
instructions and general advice on the pr 
of Supervisors not only represents a step 
likewise shows the development in the thi 
problems of wildlife and the place it holds 



in Michaux, and Sam Bonifant, was encouraged 
er C. P. Montgomery, E. F. Yates, former repre- 
others interested in wildlife conservation. The 

the Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries, 
s for the wildlife plantings , and they will give 
j ect . This action by the Powhatan County Board 

forward in actual wildlife conservation, but 
nking and consciousness of Virginians to the 

in the economy of any wise land-use program. 



RABIES IN VIRGINIA H IGHES T SINCE 1944: "During 1951 Virginia had its highest incidence of ra- 
bies since 1944, with a total of 223 cases of animal rabies reported, " according to a re- 
cent report submitted to the Commission by Dr. Mack I. Shanholts, State Health Commis- 
sioner. 

It is generally known that the dog is the most common transmitter of rabies, but the oc- 
currence of the virus in foxes makes it of particular significance in the wildlife field. 
Sections hardest hit during the past year were Fauquier and Loudoun counties in north- 
ern Virginia; Lee, Washington and Wythe counties in southern Virginia ; and the City of 
Richmond. With this report comes startling information from the State Health Depart- 
ment that 1952 is well on its way to being another bad year for rabies in Virginia. During 
January, 26 cases of positive rabid foxes were reported from the three northern counties 
of Fauquier, Loudoun, and Warren. One case has been reported, thus far, from Wythe County. 
It is interesting to note that during 1951 there were 38 cases of rabid foxes reported 
from Fauquier County ; six were reported during last January. There were 19 cases in Loud- 
oun County in 1951 ; in January there were six. And during 1951 there were two cases re- 
ported in Warren County, and in January there were 14. The majority of foxes found rabid 
have been grays, but some were reds. Many more cases of rabid foxes have been reported 
but the figures listed are only those definitely proven rabid by the State Health Depart- 
ment . 

ESSAY CONTEST GOAL OF 100 COUNTIES NEARED TOP: Over 225 schools, from 91 of Virginia's 100 coun- 
ties, entered the 1951-52 Fifth Annual Wildlife Essay Contest jointly sponsored by the 
Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries and the Virginia Division of the Izaak Walton 
League of America. Officials had hoped that 100 per cent of Virginia's counties would 
have at least one school entry before the contest closed February 28. The 90 counties rep- 
resented in the contest showed a notable increase over the 56 counties which were repre- 
sented in the essay contest last year. Contest officials of the Commission and the League 
believe that the Conservation Essay Contest, now in its fifth successful year, is one of 
the soundest methods of getting conservation across to our young citizenry — and urged 
teachers and parents to have their children enter. 



MARCH, 1952 



13 



"COON HUNTIN" 

For Pleasure and Conservation 

Each year for a number of years the 
Tidewater Coon Hunters Association has 
hunted raccoons for recreation and for 
the profit to the state. Captured ^ coons 
are turned over to the Commission for 
restocking in parts of the state which 
have little or no ^coon population. 

Commission photott hii Kesteloo 




# 



■ '■ "^i^'V 






4. Muck an<l dehris make up a great part of the swaii> 
where the 'coons live, and this man walks cautiously. 




Some equipment used in capturing 'coons alive, 
such as tree climbers, nets, cage, 
and hip hoots. 



9. Sometime later the 'coon is transferred 
1 a fr< 
home. 



to a car and given a free ride to its new 




fej!.- 



6. Climhing the tree after dark is risky business. Hunter 
proceeds slowly as excitement mounts. 



7. Bill Murphy, association mem!>er, takes 'coon from 
cage and transfers it into holding crate 



The 
CONGO EEL 

A remarkable member of the Virginia fauna. 
By JOHN THORNTON WOOD 



Commission photos by Kesteloo 




Head and body of Congo eel. 



FISHERMEN of the fresh-water swamps, ponds, 
and streams of southeastern Virginia sometimes 
encounter a bizarre, snake-shaped creature with 
the shmy skin of an eel, and four extremely short 
legs. When they try to find out what they have 
caught, they get a variety of answers, for the Congo 
eel is also known as the poison eel, deaf adder, ditch 
eel, black eel, blind eel, lamper eel, and Serpent of 
the Congo. All of these names show that people 
think the Congo eel is either some type of eel or 
snake. It is neither fish nor reptile, — it is an am- 
phibian! This is the class of animals which include 
the frogs, toads, and salamanders. It is Virginia's 
longest salamander, exceeding the "Hellbender" of 
the southwestern counties by more than a foot, to 
reach a maximum length of more than three feet. 

Fishermen often are told that Congo eels are poi- 
sonous, but this is a myth. Congo eels feed by cor- 
nering crayfish in their burrows, and also on carrion, 
but have no venom apparatus to assist in the capture 
of their prey. This doesn't mean that Congo eels 
are harmless, for they have small sharp teeth. When 
fighting for their lives, after being pulled out of 
a swamp pool by hook and line, they thrash violent- 
ly, and try to bite the nearest object. One Congo 
eel wound was reported to have been so severe that 
it left a scar which remained for seven years. Such 
wounds are rare, though, and cautious fishermen run 
little risk of this type of injury. Congo eels mind 
their business and don't look for trouble; the re- 
ported bites were caused by cornered or injured 
specimens. 

These snake-shaped giant salamanders live in 
swamps, ponds, and ditches. They are rarely found 
in muddy waters, but occur in "black" waters of 
cypress areas like Lake Drummond in the Dismal 
Swamp. They are now known from nine southeast- 
ern Virginia counties: Brunswick, Elizabeth City, 



Greensville, James City, Nansemond, Norfolk, 
Prince George, Princess Anne, and Warwick. They 
have been reported from Chesterfield and Gooch- 
land counties, but these records are not backed by 
preserved specimens. The Goochland record is 
probably in error. They may be expected in Surry, 
Sussex, Southampton, Isle of Wight, and possibly in 
York counties. Virginia Congo eels are reported liv- 
ing in crayfish burrows on stream bottoms, and are 
also found in swamps under logs, among cypress 
roots, and in dense weed patches. By day they remain 
under cover, concealed from their enemies. By 
night they can often be found in large numbers in 
some states. They have never been found in large 
numbers in Virginia. 

Little is known about the feeding of these crea- 
tures, but enough to assure fishermen that they don't 
thrive on game fish. Apparently their chief food 
consists of crayfish, but worms, small clams, and 
frogs are also eaten. They probably eat whatever 
they can catch, and in captivity have eaten young 
bowfin. Captive Congo eels in the biology depart- 
ment at the College of William and Mary have fed 




Dorsal view of Congo eel (left). Ventral view of 
the salamander (right). 



16 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 



on beef for years. In these days of inflated prices 
horsemeat was offered the eels as a substitute, and 
the eels would snap up the horsemeat, hold it in 
their jaws without attempting to swallow it, then 
spit it out and refuse to feed until strips of beef 
were provided. 

Congo eels live many years. Their life span in 
a laboratory tank is not good evidence of their 
normal life span, for they are protected from their 
enemies, the mud snakes. In captivity one Congo 
eel lived for 26 years; the two at William and 
Mary have survived in the biology department for 
16 years, and were full grown when they were do- 
nated in November of 1935. 

Congo eels reproduce like other salamanders. Fer- 
tilization is internal, and several months after fer- 
tilization eggs are laid. In North Carolina, strings 
of eggs have been found in July. The mass of eggs 
is as large as a man's fist, and is usually under a log 
or stump in a temporarily dried-up swampy area. 
The egg-mass consists of two long strings of eggs, 
each from four to eight feet in length. Individual 
eggs are the size of large peas, and are spaced about 
a half-inch apart on the string. No nests are known 
to have been found in Virginia, but when one is 
found it is probable that the female will be found 
coiled around the eggs. 




Ann Headlee, secretary in Commission's education 

division, feeds a Congo eel its weekly ration of pork 

liver. (Circle) Eel strikes hard at strip of liver. 



Early observers described the "voice" of the 
Congo eel, calling it the first voice developed in the 
animals with backbones. Scientists today regard 
the sound produced by the Congo eel as accidental, 
resulting from their sudden expulsion of air as they 
are lifted from water. This rush of air, forced 
through openings in the sides of their heads, produces 
a sort of whistling chirp. 

The widely-used name blind eel suggests the wide- 
spread belief that these salamanders are blind. This 
is probably true of adults, although younger speci- 
mens have better developed eyes. Even in adults 
the eyes are still active as light detectors, helping the 
eel to determine when it is safe to come out of hiding 
to hunt a meal. 

Adult Congo eels breathe with lungs like all the 
reptiles, birds, and mammals. Larval Congo eels 
obtain oxygen from water with gills the way fish 
do. It is usual for larval amphibians to differ from 
adults in this striking manner. 

Congo eels are caught by fishermen, or by "ditch- 
ers" working near swamps. Scientists seeking them 
have their best luck when searching at night using 
jacklights. One observer reports success in luring 
them from crayfish holes by wiggling his finger in 
front of the entrance! Congo eels have so little 
sight it is not likely the finger was observed, but the 
slight disturbance of the water may explain why this 
odd technique works. Most Congo eels for scientific 
use are gigged with sharpened prongs carefully 
being passed on either side of the backbone to avoid 
fatal injury to the animal. In this type of collecting 
one is cautioned to wear heavy gloves. 

Folks who try to handle Congo eels know what 
"slippery as an eel" means. It is nearly impossible 
to hang on to one bare-handed. The result is almost 
always the same, — the eel shoots itself through one's 
hands like water squirting through a hose. They are 
much easier to hang on to with cotton gloves than 
with bare hands. 

Specimens are needed to give us a better under- 
standing of their distribution and life history. Two 
large eel-like salamanders are found in southeastern 
Virginia — the one that grows longest is the Congo 
eel, which has no gills protruding from the sides of 
its head in its adult stage. The other salamander, 
mud siren, has large gills as an adult. If you catch 
either one, you can add to the data on these unusual 
animals by dropping me a card telling where, when, 
and how you caught the specimen, how it behaved, 
its length, and whether or not it had gills extending 
from the sides of its head. 



(Editor's note: The author's address is John Thornton Wood, University 
of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.) 



MARCH, 1952 



17 




WOMEN IN CONSERVATION 



Virginians 



Windsor Shades, located between Central Garage and 
West Point, is believed to have been Ruffin's Tavern, 
of which George Washington wrote. Built in 1740 
by a member of the RufRn family. At the entrance 
is the site of Ruffin's Ferry. 



I^HE PASSAGE of the years has not obliterated 
much of the tangible as well as the intangible 
beauty and nobility of Virginia's great past. De- 
spite the growth of business and industry in the Old 
Dominion, large and handsome estates, with their 
spacious homes and gardens, have lived through 
decades, and some even through centuries since they 
were established. Approximately 250 of the old 
and young estates in Virginia will be open during 
Historic Garden Week, April 26-May 3, which is be- 
ing sponsored by The Garden Club of Virginia. 

The Northern Neck is probably offering more 
"first time" places than any other section. 

One of the especially interesting homes here is 
"Kendall Hall," at the head of Carter's Creek. It 
was built in the early 1920's and is of Spanish archi- 
tecture. Owners are Mr. and Mrs. Thomas D. Mc- 
Ginnis. 

Not far from Warsaw is "Epping Forest," birth- 
place of Mary Ball, mother of George Washington. 
The west side of the house which one sees today is 
much the same as it was when Mary Ball lived there. 
The mantels, wainscoting, and over-door transoms 
are unchanged. The smokehouse, laundry, and ice- 
house are original buildings. The foundations of 
the old kitchen and slave quarters can be seen. The 
east side of the home was added in 1842. Further 
changes were made in 1904. Until 1834, when it 
was purchased by the Jesse family, "Epping Forest" 
was successively owned by the Balls, Dowmans, 
Chinns, and Mitchells. It is now the property of 
James D. and Eoline Ball Jesse. 



(garben IKeefe 



By ELIZABETH H. SMITH 

Photos by Phil Fournoy, V.S.C.C. 

It was at "Epping Forest" that Col. Richard H. 
Lee wrote a letter to the War Office in Richmond 
September 5, 1781, only a few weeks before Corn- 
wallis' surrender at Yorktown, making recommen- 
dations for efforts to clear pirates from the waters 
off the Northern Neck. Lee's long letter includes 
the following: "It seems very probable that many 
vessels will be captured from the enemy by the 
French fleet, that may be purchased from them, and 
which will suit admirably for cruizing in the Bay, 
and within the mouths of our rivers, to suppress the 
piratical practices that will undoubtedly commence 
again so soon as the French fleet goes away." 

Visitors to Alexandria will recall that this old 
seaport town grew so rapidly in the early days that 
at one time it was larger than the New York of 
that day. In Alexandria was drafted the "Fairfax 
County Resolves," the formal protest against Eng- 
lish rule. Here Washington took command of the 
Colonial troops, and it was here that in 1799 he re- 
viewed the local troops and gave his last military 
command. 

Many famous old houses in Alexandria will be 
open. One of them is a Flounder House, now owned 
by Mrs. Charles Rollins. It was the home of John 
Fitzgerald, a colonel in the Revolutionary Army and 
one time mayor of the town. 

One may see homes of several doctors who were 
famous in their time. These homes include that of 
Dr. William Brown, physician general and director 
of hospitals for the Continental Army, author of 
the first American Pharmacopoeia, a vestryman of 



18 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 







Chelsea, located near West Point, was built by Au- 
gustine and Moore in 1709. Here in 1716 Governor 
Spotswood organized the Knights of the Golden 
Horseshoe and proceeded on his memorable trip to 
the Blue Ridge. 



Christ Church, and a leader in education; the home 
of Dr. James Craik, who was at the deathbeds of 
both George and Martha Washington, and the home 
of Dr. Ehsha Dick, health officer for Alexandria 
during the yellow fever epidemic and consultant 
with Dr. Craik during Washington's last illness. 

The Fauquier-Loudoun area includes among its 
offerings "Oatlands," about six miles from Leesburg, 
built in 1800 by George Carter, son of Robert Carter 
of "Nomini Hall." In 1903 "Oatlands" became 
the property of Mrs. William Corcoran Eustis and 
the late Mr. Eustis. Mrs. Eustis is the daughter of 
the late Levi P. Morton, minister to France from 
1881 to 188 5 and vice-president of the United States 
from 1889 to 1893. The house is of Georgian ar- 
chitecture. The octagonal drawing room and the 
great hall are of special architectural interest, hav- 
ing unusually fine cornices and woodwork. This 
is the first time "Oatlands" house has been open 
during Historic Garden Week. 

"Morven Park," in Loudoun County, was built 
about 1825 by Gov. Thomas Swann of Maryland 
and purchased in 1903 by Westmoreland Davis who 
later became governor of Virginia. 

The original house at "Prospect Hill," near War- 
renton, was built at the turn of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury by Chief Justice John Marshall for his eldest 
son, Jacquelin Ambler Marshall. It was destroyed 
by fire in 1933 during the occupancy of the present 
owners. Col. and Mrs. William E. Doeller. Adjacent 
to this site a new house was erected in 1934-3 5. 
The basic motifs of design were taken from historic 
Bacon's Castle on the James River. Old brick from 
the original house was used in its construction. The 



house contains old English crystal chandeliers, pan- 
eled rooms, old doors, locks, and hinges, and from 
the house of Queen Anne in Hanover Square a fly- 
ing stairway. 

Fredericksburg, one of the most historic places 
in Virginia, is the site of many reminders of the 
city's illustrious past. 

One of these reminders is "Kenmore," home of 
Col. Fielding Lewis and his wife, Betty, who was 
the sister of George Washington. Much of the suc- 
cess of the American Revolution is credited to the 
sacrifices of this couple. So heavy were the debts 
incurred by Lewis on behalf of his government 
during the Revolution that he was never able to pay 
off the mortagage on his lovely estate. Records in- 
dicate, however, that the place never actually passed 
out of the hands of the family until after the death 
of Colonel and Mrs. Lewis. 

"Kenmore" is spacious and magnificent, both 
in its construction and furnishings. Its exquisite 
ceilings, designed by Washington, have been com- 
pared by the National Geographic Magazine with 
those of the Palace of Versailles. 

Richmond, which has played a prominent part 
in American history since Capt. Christopher New- 
port and his party landed at the site of Richmond 
in 1607 until the present, offers far too much of in- 
terest for outline in detail here. On Richmond's 
Capitol Hill convenes the oldest continuously meet- 
ing legislative body in the New World. Not far 
away are the home of Chief Justice John Marshall, 
the White House of the Confederacy, St. Paul's 
Episcopal Church where Confederate President Jef- 
ferson Davis was worshiping when he received the 
message from Gen. Robert E. Lee that Richmond 
would have to be evacuated. 

On Church Hill in St. John's Episcopal Church 
where Patrick Henry made his inflammatory speech, 
whose "Give me liberty or give me death" portion 
is quoted often. "The Lee House" and "Virginia 
House," shrines owned by the Virginia Historical 
Society, and many other shrines, will be open. 

A few miles west of Richmond is "Tuckahoe 
Plantation," the boyhood home of Thomas Jefferson. 
The interior includes some of the finest hand-carv- 
ing and paneling to be found in America. Its fur- 
niture is Eighteenth Century. 

Beyond "Tuckahoe Plantation" is "Sabot Hill 
Farm." The Georgian house is built on the site of 
the old residence of James A. Seddon, Confederate 
Secretary of War. Its Chippendale wallpaper was 
hand-painted in China. There are Eighteenth Cen- 
tury locks, with original keys, throughout. 

(Continued on page 22) 



MARCH, 1952 



19 




THE CHAIN PICKEREL 

(Esox niger) 




UrjANNIBALS OF THE DEEP" might well de- 
li scribe the fast moving, voracious, chain pick- 
erel, for from the time it reaches three-inches 
in length it feeds upon its brothers and sisters, as 
well as all of the other neighboring species of fish. 
Few fish, regardless of size, seem to be too small or 
too big for the pickerel to tackle. 

The pickerel is primarily a lake fish but occa- 
sionally is found in slow-moving rivers and streams. 
It prefers the denser cover like deep holes or pockets 
in weed beds, or around submerged logs and along 
the edges of rushes and pads. It is found mainly along 
the Atlantic coast, as far north as Maine, but also 
is caught as far west as Texas. 

While this fish is a member of the pike family 
and is often called a pike in many localities, it is 
not a true pike that many people have in mind, 
such as the pike perch. No doubt the reason is be- 
cause of the similarity of shape. 

One sure way to distinguish the pickerel from oth- 
er members of the pike family is by the scaling on the 
sides of the head. The pickerels have the cheeks 
and the gill covers completely scaled; the northern 
pike has completely scaled cheeks but only the upper 
half of the gill covers; the musky has scales only on 
the upper halves of the cheeks and gill covers. 

The spawning period occurs in the spring, usually 
from March to April, depending upon the tem- 



perature of the water. The eggs are deposited, 
without any prepared nest, among the weeds, brush, 
or limbs in the shallow water near the shore. The 
eggs come forth in long strings, and the number 
may range from 1,500 to 3,000, depending on the 
size of the fish. The incubation period is about 
fifteen days. 

When on the feed, the chain pickerel will have 
a try at anything that has motion. Mainly, it de- 
vours minnows, frogs, insects, salamanders, and any 
small fish that happen upon the scene when it feels 
the urge to eat. This cannibalistic tendency makes 
artificial propagation extremely difficult. 

This fish sometimes attains a size of thirty-three 
inches or more and a weight of eight pounds. The 
general average size runs around fifteen to eighteen 
inches, depending upon the water inhabited and the 
food conditions available. The official world's rec- 
ord is 10 pounds 10 ounces and was caught in 
Quebec in 1 93 5 . It takes four years for the pickerel 
to grow to a length of 12 inches. 

Comparatively few anglers become addicted to 
pickerel fishing because it is seldom hair-raising, 
tackle-busting sport. Neither is brook trout fish- 
ing with a cane pole. But to a sportman on the 
operational end of light terminal tackle, the pickerel 
can be a sporting fish comparable with some of the 
best. 



20 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 












THE CANADA GOOSE 

(Branta canadensis canadensis) 



THE RESONANT HONK of the Canada goose 
remains as one of the few hnks between our 

modern age of machines and the age of new- 
frontiers and wilderness hving. S© inspiring is the 
"call of the wild goose" that poets and writers of 
song and fiction alike have drawn heavily upon it 
to set the scene of wild and far-away places. Rare 
is the man who has heard wild geese pass overhead 
without a tinge of nostalgia and an urge to go with 
them on their spring migratory flight to the north 
country. 

The Canada goose is the largest of our six species 
of geese, measuring from 3 5 to 43 inches in length 
and weighing up to 14 pounds. It arrives in Vir- 
ginia in early October and remains here until 
around mid-April. 

Swimming on the surfaces of quiet waters in 
stately fashion, this three-foot honker maintains a 
constant air of dignity. It feeds on vegetation 
growing on the bottom of shallow ponds by bend- 
ing its long neck under the surface. As it plucks 
the greenery from beneath the water-surface it 
virtually stands on its head, and its tail is all that 
protrudes from the water. However, the Canada 
goose is largely a grain and grass feeder. 

These big birds breed in the prairie provinces of 
Canada and the northern central states, and winter 
from southern Canada through the United States 
and into Mexico. 



Normally the mother goose hatches her five to 
nine eggs while father gander stands by protectively. 
He will lay down his life in defense of his family. 
As quickly as the young geese are hatched they are 
able to walk about and swim, at which time both 
parents begin to molt. 

Geese, like floods, forest fires, and erosion, are 
little concerned with boundary lines, whether they 
be international, national, state or private. They 
are no more concerned with the Canada-American 
boundary line than they are with the boundary line 
between the properties of Joe Brown and John 
Jones. Where there is food, water, and protection, 
they will be found. We, here in Virginia, almost 
lost the brant, when the eel grass, the main food in 
the diet of the brant, was killed out by a blight. 
However, with the return of the eel grass, the num- 
bers of brant increased such that last year Virginia 
held the first brant season in several years. It il- 
lustrates a point to be considered. The brant was 
once found by the thousands on the Eastern Shore, 
but then, practically overnight, it became scarce. 
The same thing could happen to the Canada goose, 
or to any of our waterfowl species. Take away its 
food, drain or burn the marshes, pollute its waters, 
or fail to protect it properly, and it too could go the 
way of the brant. It could happen if we should 
relax our conservation efforts. 



MARCH, 1952 



21 



FEDERAL AID 

(Continued from page 7) 

Virginia has acquired the excellent Hog Island Ref- 
uge on the James River. Tennessee and Alabama are 
bringing ducks and geese back to the TVA reser- 
voirs. Arkansas has purchased a splendid 40,000- 
acre area in the timbered bottomlands of the Bayou 
Meto to serve for public hunting of ducks, deer, 
turkey, and squirrels. 

There is no other kind of game restoration proj- 
ect nearly so impressive as a waterfowl project. 
Spectacular flights of ducks and geese on an attrac- 
tive marsh are evidence of success which wins in- 
stant public acclaim. Duck hunting is generally 
possible only for the club member or owner of 
good shooting property. There is urgent need for 
some areas in every state where waterfowl properties 
are managed for public shooting. These are slowly 
but surely being provided through P-R projects. 

Fundamental to the management of our game re- 
sources are the many and varied research projects 
which have been conducted in the Southeast by 
P-R. The results show how to increase the game and 
how to control the harvest through wise hunting 
regulations. To produce a better automobile or an 
atomic bomb requires the "know-how" which is 
provided by research. We need the same, common- 
sense approach in game and fish management. 

I am happy to say that, with the impressive ac- 
complishments of P-R we can now look forward 
to a similar record in the new Dingell-Johnson fish 
restoration work. Our states have 20 fisheries proj- 
ects approved. Many are research projects. They 
deal with streams, farm ponds, small lakes, and big 
reservoirs. Some will control rough fish and others 
will eliminate water hyacinth. Trout in the cold 
waters of mountain streams and in the tail-waters 
of deep reservoirs will be the subject of investiga- 
tion. More know-how leads to better fishing, and 
that's what we all hope for. 



BEFORE THE DOGWOOD BLOOMS 

(Continued from page 9) 

in casting very light lures with the conventional 
types of casting rods. When the fish start "looking 
up," and taking surface lures, the fly rod is incom- 
parable. 

Where to go to usher in the spring fishing season 
has been determined by most of us in advance. The 
average city person would be amazed at the num- 
bers of men, women, and children who line the 
banks of the rivers and creeks of the state just as 
soon as it warms up even a little bit. 



It's panfish that most of these people are after 
and, luckily, there are plenty of them in Virginia's 
waters. The mood is for the little fishes, and who 
cares about the whales and piscatorial behemoths? 
The urge for the first nibble, or the first flashing 
strike is in the blood of a lot more Virginia people 
than one might suppose. 

There are a lot of manias that possess us once 
in a while. The opening of the baseball season, or 
the football season! Or the hunting season! The lid 
off for the bass season and the trout season! None 
of these get quite so completely in the blood of 
the average Virginian as open weather in early spring 
and the expeditions to the fishing waters. 

GARDEN WEEK 

(Continued from page 19) 

Lower James River Plantations, North Side, in- 
clude "Riverview Farm," "Shirley," "Berkeley," 
"Westover," and "Evelynton." 

Plantations on the Lower James, South Side, in- 
clude "Brandon," "Upper Brandon," "Eastover," 
and "Smith's Fort Plantation." The house on the 
last named place was built in 165 2 on land given 
by Powhatan to John Rolfe upon his marriage to 
Pocahontas. The grounds were restored by The 
Garden Club of Virginia. The owner is the Asso- 
ciation for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. 

Among the offerings in the Gloucester-Mathews 
District is "Elmington," home of Thomas Dixon 
who wrote many of his books there. The present 
house was built in 1848 by John Tabb of White 
Marsh as a wedding gift to his son. Dr. John Prosser 
Tabb. Dixon remodeled it in the late 1890's. The 
estate is noted for its magnificent magnolias and 
broad lawn which sweeps to the North River. 

It was on the Eastern Shore of Virginia that the 
first permanent English settlers first set foot on the 
North American continent. One of that band 
of Englishmen was Thomas Savage who later made 
his home on the Eastern Shore. On part of the tract 
of several thousand acres given him by Debedeavon, 
"Laughing King" of the Indians, was built, in 1799, 
"Elkington," near Eastville. Its panehng and scenic 
blocked wallpaper are of special interest, and its 
furniture is in keeping with Eastern Shore tradition 
of Colonial times. 

Space here will not permit a description of all the 
homes, churches, and other shrines which await 
visitors during Historic Garden Week. However 
additional information about any of these places 
may be obtained by writing to Historic Garden 
Week, Room 3, Hotel Jefferson, Richmond 19, Vir- 
ginia. 



22 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 



HOMES FOR WILDLIFE 

"Woodsman, spare that den 
tree!" is suggested by the tag re- 
produced here, which the directors 
of the Benzie (Michigan) Soil Con- 
servation District provide for land- 
owners. 

Because woodland and wildlife 
areas make up over 40 per cent of 
the planned land use in the district, 
wildlife management is highly im- 
portant. The district recommends 
that an average of two den trees per 
acre be left standing — hollow trees 
which are now or may become the 
homes of squirrels, raccoons, a va- 
riety of birds, and other wildlife. 

The tags are used by technicians, 
the county agent, directors, land- 
owners, and others to mark trees 
that should be left for den trees in 
the process of working out the com- 
plete farm plan. 

The directors of the District — 
Donald Gray, Verne Hopkins. Ells- 
worth Esch, Roscoe O'Blenis, and 
Eugene Stone — have wildlife and 
woodland management interests, as 
evidenced by their five farms, to- 
taling 2,400 acres, of which 1,011 
acres, or 42 per cent of the land, 
are classified as woodland and wild- 
life. 

LEAVE THIS FOR 

A 

WILDLIFE 

DEN TREE 

Owner 



Cooperating with 
Benzie Soil Conservation District 



THE JAMES RIVER 

While on vacation in Goshen 
Pass, I rambled through my copy 
of "The James River Basin" and by 
chance stumbled on the geology 



section. In imagination I boarded 
the plane with Professor Stowe and 
followed the James River from its 
humble birthplace on the side of a 
ridge in Highland County, on its 
long winding trek for 335 miles past 
Covington, Clifton Forge, Iron Gate, 
Eagle Rock, Buchanan, Big Island, 
Lynchburg, Bent Creek, Scottsville, 
Bremo Bluff, Rock Castle, Rich- 
mond and on into the ocean at 
Hampton Roads. The trip was so 
exciting and breath-taking that I 
decided to do some rambling on my 
own. 




CaniTnission photo h>i Shonion 

The upper reaches of the James 
River. 

Then the thought occurred, why 
not visit that humble spring-house 
on yon mountainside that was the 
beginning of Virginia's largest and 
longest river within state lines, and 
watch it as a bouncing baby brook 
start its long journey to the Atlan- 
tic. 

So we went over the mountain 
from Goshen and finally reached the 
quiet little county seat of Monterey. 
There we followed Route 250 as it 
climbed another mountain and then 
dropped down into the Blue Grass 
district and Hightown. Believe it 
or not, Hightown has the highest 
elevation of any postal town in Vir- 
ginia. About a half mile past High- 



town, 250 swings to the right as it 
continues on to West Virginia. 
Straight ahead on the ridge, before 
the road turns, is a barn. 'Tis said 
that the water falling from the left 
side of the roof flows into the James 
and from the right side into the 
Potomac. 

In the field on the left is a spring- 
house covering the real headwaters 
of the mighty James. A short dis- 
tance away is another spring, which 
is the beginning of the Potomac 
River. 

As I watched the cold ci'ystal clear 
waters gushing from that spring on 
the left of the road and starting 
down through the pasture, a mere 
branch easily stepped over, I 
thought of it at Newport News with 
the 41^-mile James River Bridge 
across it. 

That's it, folks. I had seen the 
birthplace of the James and found 
that "Little spring branches into 
mighty rivers grow." 

— "Scally" Maurice 



MARCH AUTHORS 

DR. CLARENCE W. WATSON, Fed- 
eral Aid HI Fish and Game Work 
of the Southern States, is federal aid 
supervisor, southeastern section. Fish 
&WildHfe Service, Atlanta, Ga. 

JOHN H. GWATHMEY, Before The 
Dogwood Blooms, is rod and gun 
editor, Richmond Times Dispatch. 

ROBERT R. BOWERS, Let's Plant 
Those Idle Acres, is chief of publicity 
and publications section, education 
division, Virginia Commission of 
Game and Inland Fisheries, and as- 
sociate editor of Virginia Wildlife. 

JOHN THORNTON WOOD, The 
Congo Eel, prominent Virginian 
biologist associated with the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, Charlottesville. 

ELIZABETH H. SMITH, Virginia's 
Historic Garden Week, is the fea- 
ture writer for The Garden Club 
of Virginia, Richmond. 



MARCH, 1952 



23 



Youths Aid in Conviction of Dynamiters 

Warden Duval Conner of Appomattox County re- 
cently reported the results of a dynamiting case in 
his county. Some time ago three violators were ob- 
served dynamiting fish on Rack Island Creek. The 
incident was reported to Warden Conner, and, after 
some fruitful detective work, the offenders were ar- 
rested and summoned to court. 

In trial justice court the violators were fined $200 
each, in addition to costs. However, the entire case 
was appealed to circuit court of Appomattox County. 
At this circuit court, in early December, the judge 
fined each of the dynamiters $200 and costs, making 
a total fine of over $700. In addition, each of the 
men was required to serve an immediate 30 day jail 
sentence. Jail sentences have been served and fines 
and costs have been paid. 

The significant part of the entire case was the fact 
that two young boys had witnessed the violation, and 
had the moral courage to give the information to 
warden Conner. How many adult sportsmen would 
have done the same under similar circumstances? 

Squirrels Have Feelings Too 

The following is a true account of an incident 
that happened December 24, 1951, in Surry County, 
on the property of the Southwark Hunt Club, sub- 
mitted by William B. Trafton, Portsmouth, Virginia. 

"Mr. Kent Bamette and I were squirrel hunting 
on Christmas Eve. After hunting all morning we 
returned to our automobile to eat lunch and to de- 
posit our kill of squirrels. Both he and I placed 
our game in the trunk of the car, Mr. Bamette also 
put his shotgun in the trunk along with the squirrels. 
We then sat down to eat lunch. While eating we 
heard a noise in the car, which we paid Uttle atten- 
tion to, at first, but after hearing it again and each 
time a little louder we decided to investigate. Upon 
opening the trunk we found a squirrel, which had 
apparently been only stunned, now very much alive. 
That squirrel had chewed up the stock of an L. C. 
Smith double something awful. Needless to say, 
when we got through with him after this he was more 
than stunned. We couldn't find any reason for that 
squirrel trying to eat the gun unless he just didn't 
want us shooting any more of his brothers and sis- 
ters." 



10,000 Valley Students in Soil Projects, 
Supervisors Live the Way They Preach 

The youth of today will be the caretakers of the 
soil tomorrow. 

No one realizes this better than the supervisors in 
Virginia's Lord Fairfax Soil Conservation District. 
For the past six or seven years they have sponsored a 
soil conservation program for the 10,000 boys and 
girls in the schools of the district with increasing par- 
ticipation from year to year. 

"Youth molds its future as it saves the soil by 
which we live" proved to be one of the most mo- 
tivating themes. Pupils have used in class rooms of 
some 40 schools more than 25,000 pieces of soil 
conservation literature. They have distributed much 
of this literature to the 5,000 farm homes and to 
others of the district from year to year. About 20 per 
cent of the farmers have, in cooperation with the 
district, developed soil and water conservation plans 
for their farms. 

Pupils were responsible for the planting of almost 
200 wildlife borders to shrubs and trees the past 
spring. Their slogans: "Wildlife needs the help of 
the 10,000 boys and girls in the schools of the dis- 
trict. Wildlife borders for erosion control and 
more and better wildlife habitats on farms of the 
district." 

Active in the conservation program in the district 
are supervisor Bryan A. Hepner, Maurertown, who 




Photo courtesy S. C. S. 



Students from Slrasburg School were but a fraction of the 

10,000 boys and girls from 40 schools cooperating with the 

Lord Fairfax Soil Conservation District to save soils, waters, 

and wildlife. 



24 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 



practices what he preaches in the field; Elmer Rich- 
ards, the Game Commission's technician in the dis- 
trict; and E. C. Koontz, district soil conservationist 
for the Lord Fairfax Soil Conservation District. 

Chickahominy Bass Aid Relaxation 

Tom Robinson of the Virginia Peninsula Sports- 
man's Association, Hampton, Virginia, went fishing 




Photo by TotH IvofnnsKni 

Eight bass taken by Tom Robinson, of Hampton, from the 
Chickahominy. The largest (center) weighed 7^ pounds. 



in the Chickahominy last December just for the relax- 
ation. The bass were very cooperative in helping him 
relax, as shown by the picture. He caught eight bass, 
with the three largest ones weighing 7^ pounds, 4^4 
pounds, and 4 pounds, respectively. Not a bad way 
to relax, we'd sav. 




Photo by Leonard A. harnirr 

Panel of experts. Reading from left to right: Byron Rudacille, 

William J. Coifman, J. W. Simpson, E. Keith Monnington, 

Webb Midyette, Claude Jones, moderator, and conservation 

officer Fred Hottle. 



Midyette, Guest of Warren County 
Round Table 

During a weekly radio program sponsored by the 
Warren County Fish and Game Protective Association 
of Front Royal, Virginia, in cooperation with Bill's 
Sporting Goods Store of Front Royal, Webb Midyette, 
supervising warden of the northwest district, appeared 
as a guest and answered questions regarding the set- 
up and operation of the Game Commission. 

This panel of "experts" answers questions, sub- 
mitted by mail or telephone, pertaining to hunting, 
fishing, game and fish laws, and conservation in gen- 
eral. 

The panel is made up of personnel from the War- 
ren County Game and Fish Protective Association 
and on each program there is a guest who discusses 
some particular phase of natural resource use and 
conservation. 

1952 Food and Cover Contest 

The Prince William County Chapter of the Izaak 
Walton League of America is sponsoring a contest 
to reward those who plant and cultivate the best food 
and cover patches for game birds in Prince William 
County during 1952. The contest is an important 
part of the program of the county chapter of the 
Izaak Walton League to improve living conditions 
for wildlife in that county. 

Entrants should be prepared to plant not less 
than one-eighth of an acre. The patch should be 
located next to woods or a fence-row. It should not 
be located inside a grazing area, as cattle will eat the 
plants. The recommended combination is of bicolor 
lespedeza, sericea lespedeza, and game bird mix- 
ture. 

The County Chapter of the Izaak Walton League 
will undertake to furnish ail the plant and seed nec- 
essary for the first fifty (50) contestants — as deter- 
mined by the postmarks on the envelopes submitting 
the entry blanks. Arrangements have been made to 
have the patches judged by out-of-county conserva- 
tionists, so there will be an impartial job. 

Prizes are as follows: Ist — a Featherlight Ithaca 
Repeater 12-gauge Shotgun (model 37), with 30-inch 
barrel and full choke (value: $95), 2nd — a Reming- 
ton .22 cal. semi-automatic rifle (model 550), with 
500 rounds of .22 long rifle ammunition (value : $50) , 
3rd — a single-shot Wincliester 12-gauge Shotgun 
(value: $30), 4th — a Single-shot Stevens 16-gauge 
Shotgun (value: $25), 5th — a Fibreglass J. C. Hig- 
gins Casting Rod (value: $10), and A Fine Casting 
Reel (value: $10). 6th — a Fine Casting Rod (value: 
$10). 

The closing date for entering the contest is May 
1, 1952. 



MARCH, 1952 



2J 



V^l* 




for 
Students 



Teachers 

Parents 



(jJiidlifsL diamhUnqA, 

With March comes springtime, and 
with springtime the animal world comes 
to life. Now is the time to observe Na- 
ture at work. Perhaps the most inter- 
esting of the animal life which can be 
observed are the amphibians, such as 
toads, frogs, and salamanders; for they 
can be observed as well in the classroom 
as they can in the field. Let's take a look 
around and see what we mean. 

It is possible to find pools filled with 
egg masses of frogs, toads, and salaman- 
ders. These egg masses can be collected 
in restricted numbers and brought into 
the classroom. Small glass jars make 
suitable containers for keeping them dur- 
ing their incubation period. However, 
pond water should be used, rather than 
city water. 

One of the most inexpensive aquar- 
iums that can be used in a classroom is 
a glass gallon-jar. This jar should be 
placed in the shadows so that no direct 
sunlight will shine on it. If it is placed 
in sunlight the water will become too 
warm for the incubation of the eggs. 

The hatching and the development of 
the young amphibians can easily be ob- 
served in the classroom. In many of the 
species it is possible to observe the entire 
series of changes from the egg to the 
tadpole to the frog. Also, the young 
salamanders can be carefully watched, 
with emphasis on the use of the external 
gills in early stages of life. 

As soon as the hatching takes place 
in the acquarium, the large numbers of 
young should be separated into smaller 
groups. If this is not taken care of im- 
mediately, the majority of the animals 
will die. 

Feeding these tadpoles and young 
salamanders is very simple. Tulip leaves 
will serve as food. It will be necessary 
to peel off the thin layer covering the 



leaves to expose the fleshy part of the 
leaf. If this type of leaf is not available, 
it would be wise to collect stones which 
have a coating of algae, and this will 
service as food for the growing animals. 
It is necessary for tadpoles to scrape 
their food from a solid object because 
their teeth are located on the outside of 
their mouth. 

These observations can be carried fur- 
ther by actual study of the parents of 
the young collected. It is possible to 
extend this work into both recognition of 
various species and their value to the 
citizens of Virginia. 




"You look all in today!" 

Being an authority on these forms is 
not necessary. The Yield Book of Na- 
tural History, by E. L. Palmer, will give 
a wealth of information concerning these 
animals. 



BIRD OF THE MONTH 

The Purple Martin 

He is not the earliest to arrive; the 
robins have beat him to it, as well as 
many of the hardy blackbird family. And 
certainly he is no accomplished singer. 
But when we hear the well-remembered, 
happy "twittering", and look up and see 
him and one or two of his fellows circling 
in the air. and, watching, we see him 
"land " on the box and flirt his wings and 



switch his tail. — then we know that 
spring is here: the purple martin is back 
again. 

This bird winters in the great Amazon 
Valley of Brazil. In spring migration he 
reaches our Gulf Coast about February 1 ; 
but it is not until three months later that 
he and his fellows are established over 
their summer territory, the whole of the 
United States and the southern half of 
Canada. With us in Virginia we may 
look for him after March 15. My earliest 
record in Dinwiddle County is March 13. 
By this time, of course, starlings are 
nesting in the "martin box." Do not 
worry; just watch the fun. English 
sparrows are harder to dislodge. A pair 
may last the season with the martins. 

The great enemy of the martin is a 
long-continued spell of bad weather. 
Wind and rain play havoc with its food 
supply (insects), and many young, and 
sometimes older ones, starve. Man is 
not his enemy. With men the martin 
is almost universally popular. Occasion- 
ally someone will complain that martins 
destroy his honey bees. But the writer 
will not soon forget seeing two young 
men using purple martins as targets for 
their high-powered rifles. 

Martins are noisy. But theirs is a 
"happy noise." Then one day about the 
middle of July you will realize suddenly 
that the sounds around the martin box 
have ceased. Yes, the birds have gone. 
For a few weeks they may be seen feed- 
ing over a pond or nesting in long lines 
on telephone wires. Possibly you may 
find a "roost" of thousands of these 
birds. Then they disappear. My own 
latest record for this species is the third 
week of August. During October and 
November they are taking off from our 
southern border, crossing back over the 
Gulf of Mexico to their winter home in 
Brazil. 

Watch this month for the first arrivals 
of the purple martin. 



26 



VIRGINIA WILDLIFE 



Commonwealf-h of Virginia 



COMA 



p. O. Box 1642, 7 N. 2nd St., Richmond, Virginia, Tel. 2-7293 

BEVERLEY W. STRAS, JR., chairman, Tazewell, Va. 

CHARLES D. ANDREWS, Suffolk, Va. DR. E. C. NETTLES, Wakefield, Va. 

FRANK P. BURTON, Stuart, Va. DR. WILLIAM T. PUGH, Lynchburg, Va. 

WILLIAM C. GLOTH, JR., Arlington, Va. DR. WARREN B. RAINS, Warsaw, Va. 

THOS G. HERRING, RFD, Dayton, Va. T. D. WATKINS, Midlothian, Va. 



I. T. QUiNN, executive director, Richmond 

Evelyn M. Paris, assistant executive director, Richmond 
Katherine J. Williamson, secretary, Richmond Lila L. Howard, secretary, Richmond Frances Grant, receptionist, Richmond 



GAME DIVISION 

Chester F. Phelps, chief, Richmond James E. Thornton, assistant chief, Richmond Marian Wooding, secretary, Richmond 



W. P. Blackwell, Box 1 08, Orange 

R. H. Cross, Jr., 3142 West Ridge Rd., S.W. 

J. W. Engle, Jr., 1605 Vinson St., Staunton 



DISTRICT GAME TECHNICIANS 

G. A. Gehrken, Box 121, Franklin 
Roanoke C. P. Gilchrist, Jr., Bacon's Castle 

H. A. Little, Caret 
C. H. Shaffer, Box 1 63, Timberlake Rd., Lynchburg 



C. H. Perry, Box 281, Tazewel 
E. V. Richards, Keezletown 
H. J. Tuttle, Toano 



V. C. Boone, Speedwell 

W. J. Curry, Millboro Springs 

G. P. Fisher, Rt. 1, Falling Springs 

Acie Ford, Isom 

C. G. Higgs, Rt. 1, Shenandoah 

R. D. Hodge, Headwaters 

C. E. Huffer, Mt. Solon 

Charles Jones, West Augusta 



GAME MANAGERS 

J. G. Lightner, Mt. Grove 
Bent Medley, New Castle 
William Medley, Sugar Grove 
J. H. Miller, Jordan Mines 
L. F. Oliver, Goldbond 
W. W. Ramsey, RFD 1 , Pearisburg 
Fred Roop, Rt. 1, Damascus 
Joe Rose, Tacoma 



F. O. Simmons, Rt. 2, Edinburg 

G. B. Smith, Rt. 4, Harrisonburg 
C. R. Sparks, Ceres 

W. D. Wade, Fordwick 

R. C. Webb, Rt. 2, Pulaski 

S. W. Williamson, Arcadia 

H. R. Woolridge, Star Route, Buena Vista 



HAWFIELD EXPERIMENTAL FARM 

V. M. Graves, manager, Unionville 
L. W. Blankenship, laborer. Orange 



G. W. Buller, chief, Richmond 



GAME FARM PERSONNEL 

Dennis Hart, manager, Cumberland 
Wilson Adams, laborer, Cumberland 
T. L. Frayser, laborer, Cumberland 
Emmett Jones, laborer, Cumberland 
Major Mosby, laborer, Cumberland 
Manville Wright, laborer, Cumberland 

FISH DIVISION 

Dean A. Rosebery, assistant chief, Richmond 



REFUGE PERSONNEL 

S. E. Morris, manager, Appomattox 
W. C. Newman, manager, Cumberland 
Hubert Meadow, laborer, Cumberland 



Mamie C. Noble, secretary, Richmond 



W. C. Hawley, manager, Waterlick 
Robert Brooks, fish culture aide, Waterlick 



FISH TECHNICIAN 

R. G. Martin, Stuart 

FRONT ROYAL FISH HATCHERY 

I. D. Wakeman, laborer, Waterlick 
R. H. Ramey, laborer, Waterlick 



Charles Funk, laborer, Waterlick 
T. R. Weaver, laborer, Waterlick 



D. L. Shumate, manager, Marion 
J. S. Currin, fish culture aide, Marion 
H. M. Kirby, fish culture aide, Marion 
W. O. Oakes, fish culture aide, Marion 



MARION FISH HATCHERY* 

Herbert Houlsee, fish culture aide, Marion 
Warren Harrington, fish culture aide, Marion 
Thomas Medley, fish culture aide, Marion 
Ancil Stephens, fish culture aide, Marion 



S. C. Thompson, fish culture aide, Marion 
W. R. Wolfe, fish culture aide, Marion 
H. C. Woods, fish culture aide, Marion 
W. L. Hutton, fish culture aide, Marion 



W. G. Seaman, manager, Montebello 

L. V. Seaman, fish culture aide, Montebello 



MONTEBELLO FISH NURSERY 

Elmer Seaman, fish culture aide, Montebello 
Ezra Carr, laborer, Montebello 



J. M. Seaman, laborer, Montebello 
Hall Campbell, laborer, Montebello 



C. P. Ramsey, manager, Stevensville 

N. H. Chinault, fish culture aide, Stevensville 



KING AND QUEEN FISH HATCHERY 

M. L. Prince, fish culture aide, Stevensville L. H. Wyatt, fish culture aide, Stevensville 
G. H. Wyatt, fish culture aide, Stevensville 



'Personnel at the Marion Hatchery are transferred from place to place as the need arises. 



EDUCATION DIVISION 



J. J. Shomon, chief, Richmond 

Ann S. Headlee, secretary, Richmond 

Robert R. Bowers, chief, publications-publicity 



Florence McDaniel, chief, circulation-distribution 
Leon G. Kesteloo, chief, audio-visual 
Robert E. Merritt, chief, special services 



Mildred Curtis, clerk-stenographer 
Mary Schutte, clerk-stenographer 
Betty Wanderer, clerk-stenographer 



Lillian B. Layne, chief, Richmond 



FISCAL DIVISION 

Kathleen Lancaster, clerk, Richmond 



Lillian B. Wilde, clerk, Richmond 



LAW ENFORCEMENT DIVISION 



M. Wheeler Kesterson, chief, Richmond 



Louise R. Rady, secretary, Richmond 



SUPERVISING WARDENS 

J. W. Francis, Stuart — Southwest 

R. O. Halstead, Creeds — Hampton Roads 

W. H. Johnson, Arlington — Potomac 

Webb Midyette, Ashland — Northwest 

I. H. Vassar, Charlotte Court House — Piedmont 

J. B. West, Amelia — Tidewater 

CONSERVATION OFFICERS 

H. R. Bunch, 129 N. Lexington St., Covington 

J. W. Fears, Charlotte Court House 

F. W. Hottle, Edinburg 

W. M. Howard, 302 E. Spencer St., Culpeper 

H. G. King, Disputanta 

J. S. Mise, Box 547, Marion 

J. P. Monaghan, Box 2151, Lynchburg 

C. P. Montgomery, Fine Creek Mills, Powhatan 

J. B. Nicholson, P. O. Box 65, Wakefield 

W. D. O'Neill, Norton 

T. J. Starrett, 134 Gates Ave., P. O. Box 293, Winchester 

J. L. Stringer, RFD 3, Fairfax 

Ted Ward, Tazewell 

COUNTY GAME WARDENS 

Accomack — M. J. Doughty, Wachapreague 

Accomack — E. C. Cropper, Keller 

Albemarle — M. G. Elliott, 318 I 0th St., N. E., Charlottesville 

Albemarle — W. R. Napier, North Garden 

Alleghany — F. W. Hanks, RFD, Covington 

Amherst — T. D. Woods, Agricola 

Amelia — L. A. Coleman, Amelia 

Appomattox — D. A. Conner, Appomattox 

Augusta — C. L. Miller, Deerfield 

Augusta — H. I. Todd, Box 446, Staunton 

Bath — R. F. Jenkins, Mountain Grove 

Bedford — W. W. Shields, Box 79, Bedford 

Bland — B. L. Bird, Bland 

Botetourt — L. E. Styne, Buchanan 

Brunswick — D. L. Young, Warfield 

Buchanan — R. A. Smith, Grundy 

Buckingham — C. C. Spencer, Guinea Mills 

Campbell — P. P. Monaghan, Jr., RFD 5, Box 234, Lynchburg 

Caroline — Roland Eagar, Bowling Green 

Carroll — R. E. Gardner, Fancy Gap 

Charles City — B. L. Adams, Providence Forge 

Charlotte — D. L. Tharpe, Drakes Branch 

Chesterfield — E. J. Gorman, 824 E. 45th St., Apt. C, Richmond 

Clarke — -Donald Levi, Berryville 

Craig — C. W. Surber, New Castle 

Culpeper — C. H. Robson, Jeffersonton 

Cumberland — C. L. Heath, Cartersville 

Dickenson — O. D. Kendrick, Isom 

Dinwiddie — J. W. Rives, McKenney 

Elizabeth City — S. H. Mitchell, Box 487-B, RFD 1, Hampton 

Essex — W. E. Ware, Dunnsville 

Fairfax — Fred Brown, RFD 3, Box 792, Fairfax 

Fauquier — J. K. Douglas, Catlett 

Floyd — J. W. West, Rt. 2, Floyd 

Fluvanna — W. M. Haden, Kent's Store 

Franklin — G. T. Preston, Rocky Mount 

Frederick — E. L. Gather, RFD 3, Winchester 

Giles — W. T. Jamison, Pembroke 

Gloucester and Mathews — S. R. Stanford, Bena 

Goochland — S. W. Breed, Manakin 

Grayson — W. D. Hampton, Independence 

Greene — T. P. Runkle, RFD 1, Stanardsville 

Greensville — P. F. Squire, RFD 1, Emporia 

Halifax — R. E. Austin, Clover 

Halifax — A. E. Cole, RFD, Virgilina 

Hanover — W. S. Harris, RFD, Beaverdam 

Henrico — C. I. Smith, Jr., 2401 Staples Mill Rd., Richmond 



Henry — E. T. Lemons, Box 1, Collinsville 

Highland — C. H. Corbett, Vanderpool 

Isle of Wight — H. E. Munford, RFD 2, Windsor 

James City and York — 

King George and Stafford — R. S. Purks, Box 303, Fredericksburg 

King and Queen — C. T. Bland, Shanghai 

King William — G. H. Meredith, King William 

Lancaster — H. H. Pittman, Regina 

Lee — E. T. Rasnic, Pennington Gap 

Loudoun — T. A. Daniel, Jr., RFD 1, Leesl 

Louisa — H. T. Payne, Louisa 

Lunenburg — J. R. Bacon, Jr., RFD, Kenbi, 

Madison — W. M. Pattie, Jr., Madison 

Mathews — (See Gloucester^ .i 

Mecklenburg — W, S. Crute, Baskerville 

Middlesex — B. U. Miller, Amberg 

Montgomery — J. G. Johns, 8 Park St., Cf. 

Nansemond — W. S. Rountree, 544 3rd A 

Nelson— W. A. Hill, Tyro 

New Kent — R. L. Griffith, TunstafI 

Norfolk— W. C. Ansell, Jr., 1 033 Living- ' 

Portlock, Norfolk 
Northampton — E. L. Doughty, Jr., Oyster 
Northampton — R. T. Charnock, Eastville :i 
Northumberland — S. A. Blackwell, Remd.i 
Nottoway — W. C. Irby, Jr., Blackstone ," 
Orange — W. D. Mann, Rhoadsville j 

Page — H. W. Keller, Luray 
Patrick — F. C. Hylton, Stuart .; 

Pittsylvania — P. C. Pickrel, RFD, Gretna'-, 
Pittsylvania — J. A. Tramel, RFD, Danvill 
Powhatan — McGuire Morris, Jr., Powhat. 
Prince Edward — G. L. Cox, Farmville 
Prince George — G. R. Foster 
Princess Anne — G. C. Fentress, RFD 1, E 
Princess Anne — J. A. Saunders, Creeds 
Prince William — W. L. Flory, Nokesville 
Pulaski — D. T. Vaughn, RFD 2, Pulaski 
Rappahannock — C. E. Brown, Sperryville 
Richmond — H. L. France, Ethel 
Roanoke — G. S. Harmon, Box 365, Salem 
Rockbridge — Posie Kemp, Fairfield 
Rockingham — W. C. Fawley, Star Route 1 
Russell — J. H. Perry, Hansonville 
Scott — L. O. Alley, Clinchport 
Shenandoah — E. D. Sheetz, Edinburg 
Smyth — W. W. Newman, Marion 

Southampton — W. E. Lankford, 506 2nd Ave., Franklin 
Spotsylvania — P. B. Lewis, Box 74, Fredericksburg 
Stafford — (See King George) 
Surry — C. N. Hunter, Spring Grove 
Sussex — G. A. Hawks, Stony Creek 
Tazewell — E. W. Wilson, Tazewell 
Warren — J. W. Simpson, Box 180, Front Royal 
Warwick and Newport News — P. H. Garrow, Jr., Menchville 
Washington — E. S. Yeatts, Meadow View 
Westmoreland — F. E. Settle, Montross 
Wise — C. B. Bays, P. O. Box 283, Norton 
Wythe — R. M. Wolfenden, Jr., 230 1 1th St., Wytheville 
York — (See James City) 

CITY GAME WARDENS 

Danville — T. C. Dameron, 508 Craghead St. 
Norfolk — D. A. Robertson, 231 E. Princess Anne Rd. 
Norfolk — D. A. Robertson, Jr., 1067 Little Bay Ave. 
Petersburg — F. M. Fenderson, 1517 Halifax St. 
Portsmouth — N. B. Myers, 2310 Airline Ave. 
Richmond — J. H. Hill, 2927 Chamberlayne Ave., Apt. C 
Roanoke — G. C. Flippen, Box 161 

John Holmes, messenger, Richmond 




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